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DIRECT AND INDIRECT

01 Des

apa kalian tau apa itu direct and indirect? direct itu adalah kalimat langsung yang kita ucapkan, dan indirect adalah kalimat yang kita gunakan untuk memberitahukan kabar, seperti reported speech
Contoh:
Reporting verb: Tono says,
Reported words ”I’m very good at English”
Tense yang harus kita perhatikan dalam pola ini yaitu:
Direct Speech:
Simple Present Tense
Present Continuous Tense
Present Perfect Tense
Present Perfect Continuous Tense
Simple Past Tense
Simple Future Tense
Future Continouos Tense
Conditional
Indirect Speech:
Simple Past Tense
Past Continuous Tense
Past Perfect Tense
Past Perfect Continuous Tense
Past Perfect Tense
Past Future Tense/Conditional
Past Future Continuous Tense (Conditional Continuous)
Conditional
Kalau reported speech berhubungan dengan kebenaran umum atau fakta yang sudah menjadi kebiasaan, present indefinite atau simple present dalam reported speech tidak diubah ke dalam bentuk lampau yang sesuai, melainkan tetap persis sebagaimana adanya,
Contoh :
He said, “The sun rises in the east” → He said that the sun rises in the east.
PERUBAHAN ADVERB OF TIME (KETERANGAN WAKTU) YANG PERLU DIPERHATIKAN:
Direct  :                                               Indirect :
Now                                        →        Then
Today                                      →        That day
Tonight                                    →        That night
This week                                →        That week
Yesterday                                →        The day before
The day before yesterday       →        Two days before
Last night                                →        The night before
Last week/year                        →        The previous week/year
A year ago                               →        A year before/The previous year
Three years ago                       →        Three years before
Tomorrow                               →        The next day/The following day
The day after tomorrow          →        In two day’s time/The following day
Next week/year                       →        The following week/year
On Sunday                              →        On Sunday
Here                                        →        There
This book                                →        The book
This                                         →        That
These                                       →        Those
Over there                               →        Over there
*etc.
PERUBAHAN-PERUBAHAN AUXILIARIES (KATA BANTU) YANG HARUS DIPERHATIKAN:
Can      →        Could
May     →        Might
Might  →        Might
Must    →        Would have to (kegiatan yang akan datang)/had to (keharusan yang biasa)
*etc.
Contoh:
The man said, “I must mend the wall next week”
The man said that he would have to mend the wall the following week.
Pria itu mengatakan bahwa dia harus memperbaiki dinding minggu berikutnya.
The girl said, ” I must wash my hands before eating”
The girl said that she had to wash her hands before eating.
Gadis itu berkata bahwa dia harus mencuci tangannya sebelum makan.
*etc.
Direct and Indirect Speech ada 3 macam:
1. Statement (Pernyataan) yang menggunakan “that”
He said, “we will go to Singapore tomorrow”
He said that they would go to Singapore the next day.
Bob said, ” I’m a university student”
Bob said that he was a university student.

2. Command (Perintah) menambahkan kata “to” sebagai penghubung kalimat melaporkan dengan yang dilaporkan. “not to” dalam perintah negatif.

He told me, “wait for me !”
He told me to wait for him.
She told me, “don’t cheat anymore !”
She told me not to cheat anymore.

3. Question (Pertanyaan) jika kalimat dari jenis “yes or no question”, maka bentuk laporannya menggunakan if atau whether.

Ina asked me, “Do you really love me?”
Ina asked me if/whether I really loved her.
Mixed type:
Contoh:
Anton asked me, “what’s happening to you ? You look so pale”
Anton asked me what was happening to me as I looked so pale.
Catatan: Past Tense kadang-kadang tidak berubah dalam percakapan.

EXAMPLE DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH :

1.      D : She says to her friend, “ I have been reading “
I : She says to her friend that he has been reading
2.      D : He will say, “ The girl wasn’t ugly “
I : He will tell them that the girl wasn’t ugly
3.      D : Reza said, “ I’m very sleepy “
I : Reza said that he was very sleepy
4.      D : He has told you, “ I am writing “
I : He has told you that he is writing
5.      D : Mother said to her son, “ study hard “
I : Mothe advised her son to study hard
6.      D : My friend said to me, “ I don’t like football “
I : My friend said to me that he didn’t like football
7.      D : She said, “ I didn’t go to campus
I : She said that she hadn’t gone to campus this morning
8.      D : Rikza says, “ I have seen that movies “
I : Rikza says that she has seen that movies
9.      D : Mother asked her, “ Don’t go there alone “
I : Mother asked her not to go there alone
10.  D : Father asked robi, “ Don’t smoke too much “

I : Father asked robi not to smoke too much

 
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Ditulis oleh pada 1 Desember 2012 in Uncategorized

 

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